Factory pollution is also called industrial pollution. It generates emissions, effluents and wastes which comes out during the manufacturing process of the goods and services. When all gaseous emissions, effluents spillage and wastes of a factory are not disposed off in an environment-friendly manner they harm the surrounding environment. Industrial revolution all around the world has added the magnitude of this type of pollution that is equally harmful for the nature as that of its other types.
Be it an ice factory, leather industry or a cottage industry, the manufacturing process of all of them must generate wastes in liquid and solid apart from emitting smoke if its process is so mechanized and production is made through fuel-powered machines in bulk. For the mitigation of the smoke emissions from the chimney an environmentally safe stack should be installed at the emitting point while liquid waste should be treated in treatment plant before its final disposal just like civic waste water. Industrial solid waste should be disposed of in an environmentally safe way by throwing it into the designated landfill site.
For minimum emissions from chimney or up to the allowable limits, chimney is made according to the scientific prescriptions so that whatever emits from it during or after the manufacturing process must be within its prescribed level. Moreover, the quality of machinery and equipment that is used for manufacturing should also be well-maintained and its regular maintenance and repair should be done to help them limit the emissions during the process of the production.
Every factory, if it is abiding by environmental laws, hires a health and environment manager whose job is to develop an environmental management plan which envisages:
b) Environmental impact assessment (EIA) of each expansion and installation must be carried out in compliance with the EIA rules.
c) The inside environment of the factory must be clean free from pollution
d) Environment audit of the factory must be conducted on regular basis
e) An emergency response system must be there to ward off any environmentally adverse situation
There are environmental laws in every country which not only prescribes limits for all kinds of the factory pollution but also set rules and regulations which every factory must follow in its manufacturing process. In this way no factory could offer any excuse of its unawareness after violating any environmental law. Most of the environmental laws related to the industrial pollution propose punishments of fine and imprisonment to those industries which violate them.
In developed countries environmental laws related to industrial emissions are admirably abided by because of the loophole free mechanism of their implementation. Whenever any environmental violation occurs in an advanced country, it is reported by its surrounding communities or media to the environmental regulator of the area which wastes no time to take action against the violator and prosecute it accordingly.
However, in less developed countries the implementation mechanism for environmental laws is not strong and well developed. Environmental violators easily dodge the environmental watchdogs at every stage and sometimes get bails from the green courts by offering the fake defense. As a result industrial pollution in less developed countries is far higher than the developed ones.